Контрольная работа №2 по предмету английский язык


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Контрольная работа №2 по предмету английский язык

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Контрольная работа №2 по предмету английский язык I. Проанализируйте и определите подчеркнутые пройденные грамматические структуры и переведите письменно на русский язык следующие предложения:

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Контрольная работа №2 по предмету английский язык

I. Проанализируйте и определите подчеркнутые пройденные грамматические структуры и переведите письменно на русский язык следующие предложения:

1.    Thanks to the invention of radio it has become possible to communicate with the remotest parts of the world.
2.    A firm's revenue is the amount it earns by selling goods or services in a given period such as a year.
3.    The revenue obtained from selling output depends on the demand curve faced by the firm.
4.    He is reported to have made systematic observations and experiments of computing technique.
5.    To buy into a company a shareholder must purchase shares on the stock exchange at the equilibrium share price.
6.    By the labour force we mean those people of working age who in principle would like to work if a suitable job were available.
7.    We shall have to conduct some empirical research to establish the facts.
8.    Real prices show whether the price of some commodity is rising more rapidly than prices of goods in general.
9.    The theory we have developed so far suggests different countries to have a comparative advantage in different goods and to specialize in producing these goods for the world economy.

II. Прочитайте текст, подчеркните ing- формы, определите их функции в предложении. Переведиге предложения с ing-формами на русский язык в письменном виде. Перед выполнением заданрш повторите грамматический материал Темы 3, разделы 3.1, 3.2,3.3 Практикума.

Bringing together the buyer and the seller and facilitating their exchange is the essence of marketing. From the time of the Roman mercatus (Latin, for a public place where sellers and buyers meet), the town market square has been an important center of commerce where direct transaction between producers and consumers take place. In this type of local, each producer accepts major responsibility for advertising, finding customers and setting a price. With the spread of trade more and more specialised artisans were able to live without growing their own food. By the second century, Ostia, one of Rome's ports, already had large consumer warehouses. Overseas purchases, shipments, and distribution of grain, oil, and fish were common. Long-distance marketing of textiles and other wares took place along the so-called silk road from China to the Middle East at centers like Samarkand, and by the fourteenth century, Timbuktu, in the Upper Niger region, was one of the world's busiest inland markets with its trans-Saharan caravan trade. The opening of the sea routes between Europe and the East Indies stimulated marketing channels for sugar and other tropical goods. Today the trend in marketing food and other commodities is such that most of the preparation is handled in bulk by specialised agencies. A growing proportion of the food consumers purchase today is ready to eat or has only to be heated.
What this means in practical terms is that many foodstuffs, as well as other products, pass through numerous channels before being sold al countless consumer outlets.

III. Прочитайте текст, подчеркните инфинитив и определите его функции. Переведите предложения с инфинитивом на русский язык письменно. Перед выполнением задания повторите Тему 3, пункт 4 Практикума.

То understand the new role of small business in manufacturing it is necessary to begin with a dramatic empirical finding: for most of this century, the size of the small-business sector measured by the share of overall employment in companies with fewer than 100 employees was shrinking throughout the industrialized world. But starting around 1970, that trend began to reverse. Small busi-ness's employment share began to grow slightly. When small units of large businesses are added to the calculation, the trend toward small-scale production appears to be even more pronounced. This is the central conclusion of the «the Reemergence of Small Enterprise», a major international study of small business. The study is meant to analyse the role of small business and its share of employment in nine countries, including the United States, Germany and Japan. The growth in industries like services, where small companies are in the large majority, is considered to explain only part of the increase. The employment shift is also happening within specific sectors. For example, between 1980 and 1986 manufacturing employment at large U.S. companies of 500 employees or more declined by 10.8% - nearly 1.8 million jobs. During the same period small manufactures employing less than 100 workers added 326,000 jobs - an increase of 7,5%,

What's important about this trend is not the size of the shift in most cases, it is small. The fact that it is occuring uniformly throughout the industrialized world at more or less the same time and in many different countries with widely varying economic structures suggests that something fundamental is going on.

IV. Прочитайте текст, выберите из написанных после текста предложений те, которые по смыслу совпадают с содержанием текста, расположите их в такой последовательности, чтобы получился план текста. Например: 2, 6, 4, 5, 7.

То highlight the role of markets and prices, we now ask how resources must be allocated if markets did not exist. One example is a command economy.
A command economy is a society where the government makes all decisions about production and consumption. A government planning office decides what will be produced, how it will be produced, and for whom it will be produced. Detailed instructions are then issued to households, firms and workers.

Such planning is a very complicated task, and there is no complete command economy where all allocation decisions are undertaken in this way. However, in many countries, there was a large measure of central direction and planning. The state owned factories and land, and made the most important decisions about what people should consume, how goods should be produced, and how much people should work.

To appreciate the immensity of this task, imagine that you had to run by command the city in which you live. Think of the food, clothing and housing allocation decisions you would have to make. How would you decide who should get what and the process by which these goods and services would be produced? Of course these decisions are being made in your own city, but chiefly through the allocative mechanism of markets and prices.

Markets in which governments do not intervene are called free markets.

Individuals in free markets pursue their own interests, they can run business without any government assistence or interference. The idea that such a system could solve the what, how, and for whom problems is one of the oldest themes in economics, dating back to Adam Smith, the famous Scottish philosopher-economist whose book «The Wealth of Nations» (1776) remains a classic. Smith argued that individuals pursuing their self-interest would be led 'as by an invisible hand' to do things that are in the interests of society as a whole.

Suppose you wish to become a millionaire. You play around with new ideas and invent a new good, perhaps the television, the motor car or the hand calculator. Although motivated by our own self-interest, you make society better off by creating new jobs and opportunities.You have moved society's production possibility frontier outwards, the same resources now make more or better goods, -and become a millionaire in the process. Smith argued that the pursuit of self-interest, without any central direction, could produce a coherent society making sensible allocative decisions.

This remarkable insight has been studied at length by modern economists. In later chapters, we discuss in greater detail the circumstances in which the invisible hand works well. We also show that there are circumstances in which it does not lead society to allocate resources efficiently. Some government intervention may then be justified.

1)    В странах со свободным рынком правительство не вмешивается в вопросы производства и потребления.

2)    В странах с командной экономикой все решения относительно производства и потребления принимает правительство.

3)    В странах со смешанной экономикой правительство принимает некоторое участие в решении вопросов производства и потребления.

4)    В некоторых странах государство было собственником земель и предприятий и планировало производство и потребление.

5)    В некоторых обстоятельствах «невидимая рука» не приводит к эффективному распределению ресурсов.

6)    Адам Смит считает, что индивидуумы, преследующие свои личные интересы, действуют в интересах общества.

7)    Предприниматель, стремящийся разбогатеть, улучшает благосостояние общества, создавая новые рабочие места и открывая людям новые возможности.

V. А. Прочитайте образец контракта на русском и английском языках, обращая внимание на используемую лексику. Запишите английские эквиваленты русским подчеркнутым выражениям. Запомните их.

В. Прочитайте текст, переведите его на русский язык письменно Выучите «Vocabulary» к тексту.

A contract forms is the basis of a transaction between the Buyers and the Sellers and great care is exercised when the Contract is being prepared to ensure that all the legal obligations have been stated. As a rule the Contract contains a number of clauses, such as:

Subject of the Contract Price

Terms of Payment Delivery

Inspection and Tests Guarantee

Packing and Marking Arbitration Transport Insurance

and other conditions

Here are clauses of a Contract signed by a Russian trading organization (the Buyers) and a British company (the Sellers):

I.    Subject of the Contract
The Seller undertakes to sell and the Buyer to buy on the basis of delivery FOB London, Manchester or FIull (at the Buyer's option) the complete equipment, teclmology and technical documentation of the plant.
II.    Price and Total value of the Contract
The total value of the Contract including the cost of the complete equipment for the plant as well as technical documentation, knowledge and experience (know-how), engineering, after-guarantee spares and services is £ ... (... pounds sterling).
III.Terms    of Payment
The total amount of £ ... stated in Clause II shall be paid in English pounds sterling by the Bank for Foreign Trade of Russia., Moscow, in accordance with the following terms:
10% advance payment of the total Contract value shall be made within 30 days of the effective date of the Contract...
80% of the total Contract value shall be paid in accordance with the Credit Agreement between the Bank for Foreign Trade of Russia and the Middland. Bank, United Kingdom.
5% of the total Contract value shall be paid within 30 days of the date of receipt by the Bank for Foreign Trade of the following documents...
The Guarantee amount of 5% shall be paid within 30 days of receipt by the Bank of the Acceptance Protocol confirming the acceptance of the plant for commercial operation.
IV.    Time of Delivery
The delivery of the equipment under the present Contract shall begin in 8 (eight) months and shall be completed in 26 (twenty six) months from the date of signing the Preliminary Project Acceptance Protocol.
V.    Inspection and Test
1.    Inspection and / or test of the equipment shall be carried out at the Seller's and his sub-contractors' works at the expense of the Seller in the presence of the Buyer's inspectors.
2.    The Seller is to notify the Buyer about the readiness of the equipment for inspection and / or test not later than 15 days before the proposed time of the inspection and / or tests.
3.    The Buyer's inspector shall issue in due time to the Seller a Release Certificate for Shipment on the basis of the test Certificate.
4.    If the Buyer's inspector cannot be present, the Seller shall have the right to carry out the tests without the Buyer's inspector.
The Seller shall issue a test Certificate which is to be sent to the Russian Trade Delegation in the UK who will issue a Release Certificate for Shipment without delay.
5. Final tests and acceptance of the equipment for putting it into operation are to be made in Russia.
1.    according to - в соответствии с, согласно
2.    below - внизу, ниже
3.    clause - пункт контракта
4.    divisible - делимый
5.    to draw up (drew, drawn) - составлять to draw up a contract an agreement a document an offer
6.    certificate of weight - свидетельство о весе
7.    to conclude a contract - заключить контракт to conclude a contract for the following - заключить контракт о нижеследующем
8.    to confirm - подтвердить confirmed - подтвержденный
9.    to cover - покрывать, охватывать to cover expenses a subject a programme
10.hereinafter    refered to - именуемый в дальнейшем
11.hereby    agree as follows - договорились о следующем
12.extention    - продление
13,invoice - счет-фактура, накладная
14.Letter    of credit (L / С) - аккредитив
15.    option - выбор, право выбора
16.to    open Letter of credit - открыть аккредитив
17.terms    of payment - сроки оплаты
18.delivery    - доставка
19.insurance - страхование
Тип работы: Контрольная работа

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