АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Контрольная работа № 2
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Упражнение I . Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на правила перевода сослагательного наклонения: 1. He demands that the question should be discussed at tomorrow`s meeting. 2. The manager insisted that the secretary ask for permission t...
Упражнение I . Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на правила перевода сослагательного наклонения:
1. He demands that the question should be discussed at tomorrow`s meeting.
2. The manager insisted that the secretary ask for permission to stay away.
3. Mr. Howard insists that everybody should be present at the meeting.
4. The speaker recommended that all the facts should be mentioned.
Упражнение II. Переведите предложения. Определите тип условного предложения. Подчеркните вспомогательный глагол и инфинитив:
1. If wages rise, unemployment will increase. I тип, изъявительное наклонение
2. If we installed new equipment, we would become more competitive. II тип, сослагательное наклонение.
If the market for our products expands, we will have a 20 per cent
increase in turnover next year. I тип, изъявительное наклонение
4. Had he known that he wouldn`t have said anything. III тип, сослагательное наклонение.
5. The demand for most goods and services will increase provided incomes are rising. I тип, изъявительное наклонение
Упражнение III. Перепишите и переведите предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив и определите его функцию в предложении:
1. To offer each customer the right product or service is our purpose.
2. The employers agreed to accept the terms of the deal.
3. To enter the market requires a lot of hard work.
4. The engineers must test the system to be used
5. To create a supply of loans people with the necessary financial resources have to be persuaded to loan.
IV. Перепишите и переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на правила
перевода инфинитивных оборотов. Подчеркните инфинитивные обороты и
определите его тип:
1. The manager considers the results to be unsatisfactory.
2. The company is said to be losing a lot of money.
3. The new manager is said to work 12 hours a day.
4. We expect interest rates to rise next week.
5. A small firm is likely to be specializing in one product.
Упражнение V . Перепишите и переведите предложения. Подчеркните Причастие I,II. Определите его функцию в предложении.
1. The information obtained is very valuable.
2. The persons forming a company have to submit several documents.
3. Calculating the program he paid attention to possible changes.
4. The house was restored by this firm.
5. A country wishing to limit its population may discourage immigration and encourage emigration.
VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на правила
перевода причастных оборотов. Подчеркните причастный оборот. Определите
1. It being too late they decided to stop working.
2. Being invited too late my friend could not come.
3. Most industries make use of a variety of machines, each machine carrying out a different operation.
Упражнение VII. Перепишите и переведите предложения. Подчеркните герундий и определите его функцию:
We discussed opening a new business.
He risks losing all of his money.
Entering a new market is important.
А) Переведите текст: GOOD MANAGER
lot of research has been carried out into what makes a good manager.
This research covers all types of working environments including
industry, retailing and government. The result has been that several
characteristics have been identified as being typical of the very best
managers. It seems that good managers are quick to give the praise to
employers who deserve it and the company, from a customer, for example.
Also a characteristic of good managers is that they treat people fairy
and do not have favorites. The researchers found that managers who were
thought to be discriminating against some people and giving to others
special treatment could seriously reduce the efficiency of the work
force. It was also noticed that good managers moved around a lot,
getting to know all the staff as well as people outside the company,
instead of always staying inside the office. However, this had to be
done carefully because employees, although they appreciate the manager
taking an interest in their work do not want him or her constantly
looking over their shoulder.
б) Ответьте на вопрос:
What are the characteristics of a good manager?
Тексты для письменного перевода
GOOD MANNERS – How not to behave badly abroad (by N. Ramshaw)
to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We live in a global
village, but how well do we know and understand each other? Here is a
simple test. Imagine you have arranged a meeting at four o’clock. What
time should you expect your foreign business colleagues to arrive? If
they’re German, they’ll be bang on time. If they’re American, they’ll be
15 minutes early. If they’re British, they’ll be 15 minutes late, and
you should allow up to an hour for the Italians.
When the European
Community began to increase in size, several guidebooks appeared giving
advice on international etiquette. At first many people thought this was
a joke, especially the British, who seemed to assume that the
widespread understanding of their language meant a corresponding
understanding of English customs. Very soon they had to change their
ideas, as they realized that they had a lot to learn about how to behave
with their foreign business friends.
o The British
are happy to have a business lunch and discuss business matters with a
drink during the meal; the Japanese prefer not to work while eating.
Lunch is a time to relax and get to know one another and they rarely
drink at lunchtime.
o The Germans like to talk business before
dinner; the French like to eat first and talk afterwards. They have to
be well fed and watered before they discuss anything.
o Taking off
your jacket and rolling up your sleeves is a sign of getting down to
work in Britain and Holland, but in Germany people regard it as taking
o American executives sometimes signal their feelings of
ease and importance in their offices by putting their feet on the desk
whilst on the telephone. In Japan, people would be shocked. Showing the
soles of your feet is the height of bad manners. It is a social insult
only exceeded by blowing your nose in public.
The Japanese have
perhaps the strictest rules of social and business behavior. Seniority
is very important, and a younger man should never be sent to complete a
business deal with an older Japanese man. The Japanese business card
almost needs a rulebook of its own. You must exchange business card
immediately on meeting because it is essential to establish everyone’s
status and position. When it is handed to a person in a superior
position, it must be given and received with both hands, and you must
take time to read it carefully, and not just put it in your pocket! Also
the bow is a very important part of greeting someone. You should not
expect the Japanese to shake hands. Bowing the head is a mark of respect
and the first bow of the day should be lower than when you meet
The Americans sometimes find it difficult to accept the
more formal Japanese manners. They prefer to be casual and more
informal, as illustrated by the universal "Have a nice day!” American
waiters have a one-word imperative "Enjoy” The British, of course, are
cool and reserved. The great topic of conversation between strangers in
Britain is the weather – unemotional and impersonal. In America, the
main topic between strangers is the search to find a geographical link.
"Oh, really? You live in Ohio? I had an uncle who once worked there”.
When in Rome, do as the Romans do”. Here are some final tips for travelers.
• In France you shouldn’t sit down in café until you’ve shaken hands with everyone you know.
• In Afghanistan you should spend at least five minutes saying hello.
• In Pakistan you mustn’t wink. In is offensive.
In the Middle East you must never use the left hand for greeting,
eating, drinking or smoking. Also, you should take care not to admire
anything in your hosts’ home. They will feel that they have to give it
• In Russia you must match your hosts drink for drink or they will think you are unfriendly.
• In Thailand you should clasp your hands together and lower your head and your eyes when you greet someone.
In America you should eat your hamburger with both hands and as quickly
as possible. You shouldn’t try to have a conversation until it is
THE MARKETING STRATEGY
1. To market a product successfully,
a marketer must develop strategy. The marketing strategy is more
efficient (of time and money) if it is aimed at those people the company
can reasonably expect to serve.
2. From studying the demographic
data, the manager might decide to aim his strategy towards a very
specific target, or segment of the population, as an example. An
automobile company provides a common example of this strategy, with the
wide variety of style, purpose and cost of its cars. The marketing
programs of one car company might vary as widely as its products.
In planning the strategy for marketing his product, a marketer will want
to know all he can about consumers’ needs and wants for it, their
motives for buying or not buying it, their perceptions of the product
(how it looks, feels) and their attitude towards it and the company.
Whether the potential market is domestic or foreign, it is necessary
for the marketing manager to understand the internal and external
determinals of consumer behavior. All people are supposed to have some
needs, motives, and perceptions. All are members of groups, societies
and cultures. Despite all human variety there are patterns of behavior.
One of the marketer’s tasks is to know the buying patterns of specific
groups of consumers and to match his products to their needs.
A brand is a name, sign, symbol, design or some combinations of those,
used to identify one company’s offerings and to distinguish them from a
competitor’s. A brand name is that part of the brand that can be spoken.
For instance, the style of lettering on Coca-Cola bottle is familiar
throughout the world. That is part of the Coca-Cola brand or identity.
But it cannot be spoken, while the words ‘Coca-Cola’ can. Coca-Cola is
the brand name. Brand names should be easy to pronounce, recognize and
remember; they be create a desirable idea or image in consumer’s mind;
and they should be legally protectable.
2. There art thee levels of
brand acceptance: recognition, preference and insistence. A new product
with a new name aims for the first level, simply bringing the brand if
it is easily available, though they may not go out of their way to find
it. Brand insistence – "I will have this brand and no other” – is the
goal of most companies, but it is seldom achieved. The second major
means of product identification is its packaging. The original purpose
of a package was to hold and protect its contents, but now it has much
greater importance in marketing.
3. For some types of consumer goods,
the packaging is likely to be more important than product itself. It
may be the primary tool for selling the product. The package must be
easy for the consumer to open, use and store. It must communicate
information: the brand name, the nature of the contents and any
directions for the product’s use. Finally it must be distinctive and
attractive enough to catch the attention of the customer. Color is
especially important. However, the designer of a package for foreign
markets must be aware that colour can have very different meanings in
different countries of the world.
1. A new product is
anything that is new to consumer, even a modification of an old product
or a change in name or packaging. A firm that wants to stay in business
has to give constant consideration to introducing new products, in
order to meet the changing desires of consumers. Because of potential
for growth, the idea of offering a new product can be very attractive to
a company. But producing something new can also be hazardous for as
many as 90 per cent of new products fail.
2. Some of the most common
reasons for failure are these: inadequate market research, problems with
the product itself, unexpectedly high production costs, entering the
market at the wrong time, insufficient preparation and testing of the
product, competition, poor organization of the marketing effort and
failure to study, the reasons for failure and so to learn from testing
before the product is introduced in the market.
3. Some of the best
ideas for the new product are expected to come from customers themselves
and from customers’ complaints. Ideas may also come from within the
company, from employee suggestions, analysis of the competition, or the
research and development department. Independent consulting groups might
be hired from outside the company. Crucial to the success of a new
product is its identity in the mind of the consumer, an identity created
principally by brand and distinctive packaging.
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