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2. Обязательные задания для выполнения обучающимися Необходимо выполнить для получения зачета в 3-м семестре. В обязательном порядке обучающийся должен письменно перевести один из предло...

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2. Обязательные задания для выполнения обучающимися

Необходимо выполнить для получения зачета в 3-м семестре.

В обязательном порядке обучающийся должен письменно перевести один из предложенных текстов и выполнить все задания к тексту:

 

Текст1.

 

 Budget

 

The process of calculating the costs of starting a small business begins with a list of all necessary purchases including tangible assets (for example, equipment, inventory) and services (for example, remodeling, insurance), working capital, sources and collateral. The budget should contain a narrative explaining how you decided on the amount of this reserve and a description of the expected financial results of business activities. The assets should be valued with each and every cost. All other expenses are like labour factory overhead all freshmen expenses are also included into business budgeting.

The budget of a company is often compiled annually, but may not be. A finished budget, usually requiring considerable effort, is a plan for the short-term future, typically one year. While traditionally the Finance department compiles the company's budget, modern software allows hundreds or even thousands of people in various departments (operations, human resources, IT, etc.) to list their expected revenues and expenses in the final budget.

If the actual figures delivered through the budget period come close to the budget, this suggests that the managers understand their business and have been successfully driving it in the intended direction. On the other hand, if the figures diverge wildly from the budget, this sends an 'out of control' signal, and the share price could suffer as a result.

A budget is a fundamental tool for an event director to predict with reasonable accuracy whether the event will result in a profit, a loss or will break-even. A budget can also be used as a pricing tool.

There are two basic approaches or philosophies when it comes to budgeting. One approach focuses on mathematical models, and the other on people.

The first school of thought believes that financial models, if properly constructed, can be used to predict the future. The focus is on variables, inputs and outputs, drivers and the like. Investments of time and money are devoted to perfecting these models, which are typically held in some type of financial spreadsheet application.

The other school of thought holds that it’s not about models, it’s about people. No matter how sophisticated models can get, the best information comes from the people in the business. The focus is therefore in engaging the managers in the business more fully in the budget process, and building accountability for the results. The companies that adhere to this approach have their managers develop their own budgets. While many companies would say that they do both, in reality the investment of time and money falls squarely in one approach or the other.

 

1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения на русский язык.

 

1. to predict with reasonable accuracy

6. financial models

2. overhead expenses

7. human resources department

3. business budgeting

8. financial spreadsheet

4. mathematical models

9. inputs and outputs

5. profit

10. compile budget

 

2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа.

 

1. The budget of a company is usually compiled ……….

a) every week         b) every month    c) annually

 

2. ……… is a fundamental tool to predict with reasonable accuracy

 whether the event will result in a profit, a loss or will break-even.

a) budget b) financial model c) overhead expense

 

3. Traditionally the ………. compiles the company's budget.

a) manager b) accountant c) Finance department

 

4. When a company owns some material things they are called ………

a) liabilities            b) tangible assets                    c) intangible assets

 

 

5. The managers involved in the budget process have …………….

a) responsibility              b) duties               c) accountability

 

3. Ответьтенавопросы.

 

1. What is a budget?

2. What should the budget contain?

3. Who compiles the budget?

4. What two basic approaches are used in budgeting?

5. How often is budget compiled?

 

 

Текст 2.

 

Microeconomics

 

Microeconomics, like macroeconomics, is a fundamental method for analyzing the economy as a system. It treats households and firms interacting through individual markets as irreducible elements of the economy, given scarcity and government regulation. A market might be for a product, say fresh corn, or the services of a factor of production, say bricklaying. The theory considers aggregates of quantity demanded by buyers and quantity supplied by sellers at each possible price per unit. It combines these together to describe how the market may reach equilibrium as to price and quantity or respond to market changes over time.

Such analysis includes the theory of supply and demand. It also examines market structures, such as perfect competition and monopoly for implications as to behavior and economic efficiency. Analysis of change in a single market often proceeds from the simplifying assumption that relations in other markets remain unchanged, that is, partial-equilibrium analysis. General-equilibrium theory allows for changes in different markets and aggregates across all markets, including their movements and interactions toward equilibrium.Here economists distinguish between Production theory, Opportunity cost, Economic efficiency, and Production-possibility frontier.

In microeconomics, production is the conversion of inputs into outputs. It is an economic process that uses inputs to create a commodity for exchange or direct use. Production is a flow and thus a rate of output per period of time. Distinctions include such production alternatives as for consumption (food, haircuts, etc.) vs. investment goods (new tractors, buildings, roads, etc.), public goods (national defense, small-pox vaccinations, etc.) or private goods (new computers, bananas, etc.), and "guns" vs. "butter".

Opportunity cost refers to the economic cost of production: the value of the next best opportunity foregone. Choices must be made between desirable yet mutually exclusive actions. It has been described as expressing "the basic relationship between scarcity and choice.". The opportunity cost of an activity is an element in ensuring that scarce resources are used efficiently, such that the cost is weighed against the value of that activity in deciding on more or less of it. Opportunity costs are not restricted to monetary or financial costs but could be measured by the real cost of output forgone, leisure, or anything else that provides the alternative benefit.

Inputs used in the production process include such primary factors of production as labour services, capital (durable produced goods used in production, such as an existing factory), and land (including natural resources). Other inputs may include intermediate goods used in production of final goods, such as the steel in a new car.

Economic efficiency describes how well a system generates desired output with a given set of inputs and available technology. Efficiency is improved if more output is generated without changing inputs, or in other words, the amount of "waste" is reduced. A widely-accepted general standard is Pareto efficiency, which is reached when no further change can make someone better off without making someone else worse off.

 

 

1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения на русский язык.

1. production theory

6. mutually exclusive actions

2. inputs and outputs

7. market changes

3. goods and services

8. real cost

4. monopoly

9. buyers and sellers

5. market structure

10. public goods

 

2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа.

 

1. A fundamental method for analyzing the economy as a system is …….

a) government regulation                   b) microeconomics         c) production theory

 

2. Labour services, capital and land are called ……..

a) production process              b) costs              c) factors of production

 

3. The market may reach ………. when price and quantity balance.

a) equilibrium    b) balance   c) equation

 

4. ………. is the conversion of inputs into outputs.

a) distribution       b) consumption       c) production

 

5. ……. include new buildings, trucks, roads, etc.

a) investment goods         b) public goods           c) private goods

 

3. Ответьте на вопросы.

 

1. What is microeconomics?

2. What does economic efficiency describe?

3. What is production?

4. How can a market reach equilibrium?

5. What do factors of production include?

 

 

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